The Second Rise of Minangkabau’s Publishers From West Sumatera to Java

Presented at International Conference on Culture, Arts and Humanities 2017, Andalas University, Padang, 7 September 2017

 

 By: Anggun Gunawan[1] and Zikri Fadila[2]

 

The presence of publishers and book industry in West Sumatera had been begun since 19th century and the early 20th century. The development of book publishers in Minangkabau (West Sumatera) was derived by the emerge of colonial schools and native schools. They influenced literacy figures in West Sumatera and stimulated the born of new intellectuals. Meanwhile, the progress of book industry in West Sumatera was declined after Indonesian independence (1945) in which most of Minangkabau’s intellectuals moved to capital city of Indonesia, Jakarta.

After doing the research we found interesting facts that the role of Minangkabaunese in Indonesia book Industry was not vanished or dissappeared. It was proved by the presence of many prestigious and big publishers which are owned by Minangkabaunese such as Rosda Karya, Bumi Aksara, Raja Grasindo, Zikrul Hakim Berstari, Al Mawardi Prima, Femina Group, and Kartini Group. They could continue the second gloriousness of Minangkabaunese’s publisher in Java was because they implement the spirit of “merantau” (cultural migration), the demographic fact that more than 50% Indonesian population staying in Java, and the reality that Java is the economic and intellectual center of Indonesia.

This research elaborated the first and second rise of Minangkabau’s Publishers and the factors that made Minangkabau’s publishers finding the second rise in. Literary studies and participatory research method were used to collect the data for this reseach.

Keywords: Minangkabau, Publishing Industry, and Book

 

BACKGROUND

Publishing industry is one of the industrial sectors which has a large contribution for developing the quality of human resources. Publisher is not merely about printing books, while it is the spearhead of intellectual community. Through publishers, the result of writers’s thoughts can be read by the society as knowledge transfer medium. It makes the publishers as a part of intellectual industry taking important position for the advancement of Minangkabaunese’s society.

My concern to research about publishing industry in West Sumatera in early 20th century (1900-1942) can not be separated from my concern to the significant development of publishers in West Sumatera. At that time, West Sumatera became the center of publishing and books in Sumatera and well known in Nusantara.

The progress of colonial education in West Sumatera in the late 19th century was very influencial to accelerate modernization process and changed the structure of social stratafication in that society. Industrialization development in farming and mining sectors, the change of birocracy system, urbanization, the extention of infrastructure and the velocity of social mobilization made a new pattern of social relationship.[3]

The peak of modernization in many sectors had stimulated people’s income. Their economic power also influenced the level of consumption which was more heterogeneous in many regions in important cities in West Sumatera such as: Padang, Fort de Kock (Bukittinggi), Sawahlunto, Padang Panjang and Payakumbuh. The presence of new technologies imported from Europe like printing machine had triggered the development of publishing and printing industry in West Sumatera.[4]

Initially, the printing machine was used by Ducth colonial government to printing administrative letters. Hereafter, it was used for larger needs following the growth and requirement of society. The emergence of mass media that at first in form of newspaper, then moved to the form of books as reading materials.

The study about printing technologi in West Sumater was dominantly related to the presence of local media. For example, Hendra Naldi (2008) discussed abot the development of newspaper in Sumatra’s Weskunst. Sastri Sunarti (2013) had analysed verbal and literacy aspects in Minangkabau’s newspapers in period of 1859-1940s. Moreover, Yuliandre Darwis researched about the history of Minangkabau’s Press 1859-1945. From those studies, there were no research about the development of publishing and books in West Sumatera.[5]

The preliminary studi about publishing and book industry in West Sumatera came from Dr. Suryadi from University of Leiden in his article ““Dunia Penerbitan dan Perbukuan di Sumatera Barat sebelum Zaman Kemerdekaan” (Publishing and Book World in West Sumatera before Indonesian Independence). This studi discussed about the publishing and books in West Sumatera form 19th century till the first half of 20th century. Suryadi explained that the enthusiasm of publishing and books in colonial era significantly connected with the euforia of literacy culture and the “thirst” to modernization that exhaled from western countries. The indigenous intellectuals, even they were small in number, became the trigger of internal conflicts in Minangkabau’s culture. They found the proper media to sound their ideas, namely book – an new effective medium – which brought “modern” impression and easily to bring (portable).[6]

NV Nusantara founded by Anwar Sutan Saidi was noted as Minangkabau’s publisher which was able to survive till 1970s. Then, the dominance of Minangkabau’s publishers in West Sumatera was lost because of some factors including the the pace of Java based publishers.

An interesting data published by IKAPI (Indonesia Publisher Association) mentioned that in 2014 only 6 publishers which were existed in West Sumatera. It was a contradictory condition comparing with the glory of West Sumatera’s publishers in period of 1900-1945 that reached the number of 50s. The other facts about West Sumatera’ publishing industry before Indonesian independence is their creativity and productivity has boosted Indonesian being as the country with the 3rd rank on number of book publication among colonial countries in Asia subsequent to Hong Kong and Singapore.

Howover, after following search, I found an interesting fact that the role of Minangkabaunese in Indonesian publishing industry was not dim and disappeared. It can be proved by the gait of the big publishers in Indonesia like Rosda Karya, Bumi Aksara, RajaGrasindo, Zikrul Hakim Bestari, Yudhistira Ghalia, Femina Group, Kartini Group and Galamedia which are owned by Minangkabaunese.

In this paper, We will ellaborate 2 phases of the rise of Minangkabau’s publishers in West Sumatera anad Java, and the factors influencing their progress. This research applied 2 data search, literature studi and participatory method through discussing and meeting with publishing actors in Indonesia at the moment of publisher gathering, seminars and book fairs.

 

THE FIRST RISE IN WEST SUMATERA

Some publishers in the early of 20th century in West Sumatera was partially managed and owned by Minangkabaunese. Meanwhile, for the first time publishing industry was dominated by Dutch Colonial, then the indigenous people were able to cooporate with foreign businessmen from Europe and China who were being the prior taking in part in publishing industry in Dutch East Indies.[7]

The publication of general reading in Malay language at that time was controlled by Chinese. The Minangkabau indigenous people only dived in publishing the local language books. The publishers could boost some writers such as M.A van Rijn, Y. Rongger, Paul Boumer, P.B Smith, Dja Endar Moeda, Mahyoeddin Datoek Soetan Maharadja, Soetan Radja Nan Gadang, Lim Kang Am, Lie Djoe Soean, Lim Tjeng Djit,  and Lim Soe Hin.[8]

Publishing activities in West Sumatera was growing rapidly in Padang, the important city in Sumatra’s Westkust. This point of development had been spreading to other regions such as Fort de Kock, Padang Panjang, Payakumbuh, and Pariaman.

Table 1: The Publishers in West Sumatera in the Early 20th Century[9]

No City Publisher
1. Padang Snelpers Drukkerij Orang Alam Minangkabau
2. S.W.K Typ. Tiong Hoa Ien Soe Kiok
3. Lim Eng Tjiang
4. Snelpersdrukkerij Al Moenir
5. Padangsche Snelpresdrukkerij
6. Bangoen
7. Boekh. Mahmoedijah
8. Snelpersdrukkerij Insulinde
9. (Boekhandel & Uitgever Noesantara) Roman Indonesia
10. Noesantara
11. Otto Bumer
12. De Volherding
13. Paul Bumer & Co
14. Kalid & Company
15. Stel
16. Tjemeti
17. Electric Drukkerij Sumatra
18. Timoer
19. Dirham
20. Poernama
21. Tjit-Sien
22. Boekhandel Tjan & Co
23. Boekhandel en Drukkerij Padang
24. Bemindelling Burreau Samsuddin Rasaat

 

25. Persatuan Moeslim Indonesia

 

26. Gazaira

 

27. Fort de Kock Typ Drukkerij “BAROE”
28. Tsamaratoel Ichwan
29. Drukkerij Agam
30. Merapi (penerbitan pengusaha Tionghoa
31. Boekhanel en Uitgever A. M Djambek
32. Penjiaran Ilmoe
33. Drukkerij Kahami Fort de Kock
34. Taman Pustaka Sumatera Thawalib
35. Mathaba’ah al-Islamiyah
36. NV. Nusantara
37. Lie
38. Tjerdas
39. Zam-zam
40. Poestaka Negara
41. Nasional
42. Padang Panjang Dinijjah School Padang Pandjang
43. Boekhandel & Uitgever Dt. Seripado
44. Boekhandel M. Thaib bin H. Ahmad
45. Tandikat
46. Sa’adiyah
47 Pariaman Minangkabau
48 Sulit Air Oesaha Djas
49 Soloksche Drukkerij
50 Payakumbuh Drukkerij L.M Kabau Batang Agamweg
51 Limbago Minangkabau
52 Eleonora
53 Kurai Taji Permoeda Moehammadijah

 

Based on the above data, I realised that the development of publishing industry in West Sumatera was not only centered in the center of West Sumatera residency, while it spread to the inlad of West Sumatera. I assumed that the development of publishing industry in West Sumatera could be seen in some aspects. Firstly, it is about the spacial distribution, In the early 20th century, there were 3 regions whick became the center of publishing industry, namely Padang, Fort de Kock and Padang Panjang.

Secondly, the genre and theme of the books were diverse such as Islam, Minangkabau’s culture, romance, nationalism and etc. Some publishers had a specification and specialty in which they only published romance books or Islamic books.

Thirdly, the development of publishing could not be separated from the role of writers. The writers as the owner of writing were the intellectual group who were born from educational process. It was encouraged by the presence of Nagari School, Colonial School and Islamic School.

The development of publishers and books in West Sumatera was mushrooming and was predicted becoming flourish till after Indonesian independence. Not only the publisher which owned by Indigenous Minangkabaunese people, but also Chinese publishers came first in coloring publishing business in West Sumatera. Some Chinese businessmen started to invest their money in Padang. They published some newspapers using “everyday Malay language”. However, publishing the books had not become their priority.[10] Boekhandel en Drukkerij Padang was one of Chinese publishers which started to publish crossbreed Chinese stories since 1920s. The example of their books were antaranya “Koepoe-Koepoe Poeti’atawa pernjamoean prempoean jang gaga-brani” (by Lie Sim Jwe, 1924), Mr. Dr. Oey Boen Lie: “Tjerita Jang bener telah kdjadian di Djawa-Koelon” (by No.999 (initial name)). [11]

The indigenous publishers had also emerged and developed rapidly. Some of them were Volkdrukkerij Djatilaan, Snelpersdrukkerij “Insulinde” and “penerbitan Orang Alam Minangkabau” which were leading in publishing of newspapers and books in Padang.

The development of publishers and books was not only centerd in Padang, while they spread to other regions such as Fort de Kock, Padang Panjang, Payakumbuh, Pariaman, and etc. Some of those publishers could compete with the publishers in Padang. Fort de Kock and Padang Panjang became the regions that attracked publishing’s pratitioners specially about their creativy and producing books.

During 1920-1940s, publishers and printing companies in Fort de Kock were emerging with producing Malay’s and Minangkabau’s books.[12] Some of them were penerbitan Agam, Merapi, Noesantara (Bukittinggi), Tjerdas, Kahamy, Tsamaratoel Ichwan and etc. It also happened in Padang Panjang in which the publishers there had been paying more attention to the needs to books. Some of big publishers there were Boekhandel M. Thaib Ahmad, Drukkerij Merapi, Poestaka Sa’adijah, Seripado and etc.

The publishers in West Sumatera had diversed into many genres. There were the publishers which were dominantly producing literature books, poetry books, romance books, religion books, textbooks, and general books. Each publisher had it’s own specialization. For example, Noesantara and Penyiaran Ilmoe were dominantly publishing Roman Indonesia’s series and Roman Pengaoelan’ series.[13].Al-Islamiyah was considerable to publish Islamic Scholars’s books and Islamic Books.

Publishing industry in West Sumatera had been raising some figures such as A.Damhoeri, Decha, D. Chairat dan lain-lain dalam dunia roman. H. Abdullah Ahmad, Abdullah Abdul Karim, H. A. M. K Amrullah, Datoe’ Saggoeno di Radjo and the books about Islam or Minangkabau.

Seeing the presence of publishing industry in West Sumatera in the early 20th century has showed that West Sumatera has the power and streght in economy and education. The development of publishers and books in West Sumatera had replaced Medan in domination of book industry in Sumatera.

The stretched of publishing industry in West Sumatera had been declining after Indonesian independence. The Minangkabau’s intellectuals who stayed in West Sumatera migrated to capital city of Indonesia, Jakarta. After independence, Indonesia first president Soekarno founded many higher education institutions in Java. It escalated the migration Minangkabaunese to Java.

 

THE SECOND RISE IN JAVA

Same with the trend happening in the early of 20th century, publishing business owned by Minangkabaunese was simultantly developing with printing business. Printing business was usually asked to make wedding invitation card, office letters and books. In next period, these printing business was continuing to publisher businesss and bookstores.[14]

Muhammad Arbie[15] (Medan), Asril Das[16], Rozali Usman[17] (Bandung), Hamzah Lukman (Bogor), and Rainal Rais[18] (Jakarta) were the prominent of Minangkabau’s publishing businessmen. Mochtar Naim noted that 40% of the total of Indonesian publishers managed and owned by the Minangkabau’s businessmen. Meanwhile, Mochtar Naim’s statement should be verified fist since to track the data about this number was difficult. The info about the publishers owned by Minangkabaunese, I got from the involvement in Indonesian Publishers Association’s events (IKAPI). In the early introduction, they did not mention their origin or their ethnicity, while I could guess from their dialect, their parlance and their name. When I found “Minang’s taste” in their tongues, I tried to ask more about their ethnicity and it revealed their status as Minangkabaunese.

At least I found around 8 big publishers owned by Minangkabaunese which were listed as the top of Indonesian publishers.

 

YUDHISTIRA GHALIA INDONESIA

Yudhistira Ghalia Indonesia (limited company) was founded in 1971 in Jakarta. It published laws,  books, social, political and economics books. Since 1979, this publisher had been starting to enter textbooks business. It provided textbooks for students and teachers in elementary schools, junior high schools, senior high schools and text books for universities. It used “Yudhistira” brand for imprint which was focusing on publishing the textbook for schools and used “Ghalia Indonesia” brand for higher education products.

This publisher group had a mission “dedicate in publishing world to take a role and to educate Indonesians in order to highen human resources quality in Indonesia.” Now, Yudhistira Ghalia Indonesia is located in Ciawi Bogor. [19]

 

ZIKRUL HAKIM-BESTARI

Zikrul Hakim – Bestari is a publisher who concerned in children books by stressing Islamic values in its products. This publisher was founded in 2000 by Remon Agus, an alumnae of Faculty of Economics Andalas University Padang. He comes from Padang Panjang, West Sumatera.

.Now, Zikrul Hakim – Bestari has 2 imprints, namely: “Bestari” and “Zikrul”. “Bestari” was formatted to develop knowledge books for children, while “Zikrul” (Zikrul Hakim) worked to enter multi-level aged market (toddler, children, juvenils, and adults). This publisher had proximity with the famous Indonesian theologian – Ustadz Yusuf Mansyur – in which Zikrul had published a mega seller book written by Ustadz Yusuf Mansyur titled “Wisata Hati”. Zikrul Hakim – Bestari published around 250 book titles every year. In 2014, it could print 4.022.000 copies.[20]

 

BUMI AKSARA

Bumi Aksara was founded by Amir Hamzan in 1990. In the beginning of its pace, this publisher produced management, religion and education books. In 1992, the publisher which had head office in Jakarta strengtened their existency by joining Sinar Grafika which was known as the laws book producer.

Five years later (1995), Bumi Aksara succeeded to build its own printing company and also started to take part in school book business specially the books for Junior and Senior High School students. In 2000, this publisher made a special imprint called “Hamzah” which was focusing to publish religion books. Taking a close look a big opportunity at children book business, it made BAKids (Bumi Aksara Kids) which published children books and some of them were produced in billingual version (English and Indonesian/Bahasa). In 2014, it build a new imprint “Bumi Media” which concerned to publish medical books and translated some English books to Bahasa.[21]

 

RAJAGRAFINDO PERSADA

RajaGrafindo was established in 1980 with the prior name “CV Rajawali”. In 1992, they changed their name to “RajaGrafindo Persada” (limited company). This publisher was focusing on producing the books for higher education and general sciences. Now, the publisher which was located in Jakarta had 6 imprints: Rajawali Pers (concentrating on university textbooks), Rajawali Sport (focusing on sport and medical books), Srigunting (producing religion books), Murai Kencana (publishing special books to support educational process), Kolibri (printing fiction books such as novel, short story compilation, and popular literature), and Rajawali Cilik (concerning on children and school books). [22]

 

REMAJA ROSDAKARYA

Remaja Rosdakarya was founded at 15 May 1961 with the prior name “CV Remaja Karya” with CV Rosda as a subdiary company. In 1970, they expanded to enter the printing business and 1975 the built PT. Rosda Jayaputra in Jakarta. In 1990, CV Remaja was merged with CV Rosda and had a new name “Remaja Rosdakarya” (limited company). At 1 January 1998, PT. Rosda Jayaputra was merged to PT. Remaja Rosdakarta, so that this publisher had 2 business lines: Publishing and Printing.

The books published by Remaja Rosdakarya reached a large scale of theme, such as:

  1. Higher education books (education, communication, philosophy, sociology, psychology and etc).
  2. Islamic books for higher education and popular Islam books.
  3. Children books for pre-school children and students

Now, Rosda has an international division called “Rosda Internasional” which are focusing on producing English books. They have some sales branch offices in Jakarta, Bandung, Yogyakarta, Surabaya and Malaysia.

 

 AL MAWARDI PRIMA

Al Mawardi Prima is a publisher founded by KH. Mawardi Labay El-Suthani[23] and Afrizal Sinaro (The Chaiman of IKAPI Jakarta, 2016 – 2021) in 1994. This publisher concentrated in producing Islamic books specially about worships.

The idea to establish this publisher came from the KH. Mawardi’s habbit to share his Islamic teaching notes to audiences. Then, Al Mawardi which officed in Jakarta was targetting the scripts from other writers who were concerning on Islamic topics.[24]

 

FEMINA GROUP

Femina Group was established by the children of Sutan Takdir Alisjahbana Alisjahbana (Mirta Kartohadiprodjo[25] dan Sofyan Alisjahbana[26]) in 1972. This publisher started its business with publishing women magazine “Femina”. Now, they have 14 magazines such as: Femina, Gadis, Ayahbunda, Dewi, Women’s Health Indonesia, Cita Cinta, Pesona, Men’s Health Indonesia, Readers’ Digest Indonesia, Cleo Indonesia, Parenting Indonesia, Grazia Indonesia, Best Life Indonesia dan Estetica Indonesia.

Besided publishing 14 magazines, Femina Group also took a part in other media business. They have 2 radio stations which reached woman issue segmentation U-fm Jakarta and U-fm Bandung. Moreover, they also managed some business lines such as Community Newspaper yakni Superstar Gading, Superstar Puri, Superstar Serpong, Superstar Pondok Indah dan Bintaro; Book Publishing, Custom Publishing, Modelling Agency, Pusat Kreatif Femina, Event Organizer, On-line Publishing, Pre-Press & Printing House dan Direct Marketing Services.[27]

 

Kartini Group

Kartini Group was founded by Lukman Umar after seeing the success of “Femina” which became the main reading of Indonesian women. At that time, Lukman Umar was a Femina’s distribution agent. He started his business n 1974 by creating “Kartini” magazine which also reached low-middle class women market. Less than 10 years, Kartini could achieve the biggest sirculation in which they could sell 183.000 copies every edition. [28]

Besided managing Kartini, Lukman Umar also published the other women magazine “Sarinah”, children magazine “Ananda”, and the other magazines/tabloids such as: Putri Indonesia, Hasta Karya, Asri, Amanah, Panasea, Dialog, Karina, dan Forum Keadilan. These magazines and tabloids were printed in his own printing company, Garuda Metropolitan Press.

 

The Second Rise Factors

 Minangkabaunese’s migration to some big cities in Java (Jakarta and Bandung) became an important factors in the birth of publishers owned by Minangkabaunese. Some of them who took a part in publishing business were from intellectual’s background who studied in the famous universities in Indonesia or some who had profession as Islamic teachers/preachers. The others started from “zero” with selling books on the street corner or becoming the agent of the other publisher. After knowing and seeing the prospect of publishing market, then they tried to make own publishing and printing business.

The success of Minangkabaunese in the 21st century in publishing sector was also supported by the involvement of many Minangkabaunese in the biggest colonial publisher in 20th century, Balai Pustaka. The inspiration of Balai Pustaka gave courage and confidence to next generation of Minangkabau to build their own business.

Demography and center of intellectuals such as: schools and universities became  significant factors in growing and thriving of publishing industry. The population in Java which was 57-58% of the total of Indonesian citizens (Census 2010)[29] became a potential market for publishers to sell their products. Many Indonesian intellectuals also worked in Jakarta and some big cities in Java. Their presence of intellectuals could not be separated from publishing industry because they are the central point in publishing industry specially to get a good book scripts to publish.

 

CONCLUSION

Taking a close look to periodization of the first and second rise of publishers owned by Minangkabau’s people, I summarized some similarities and differences. The first and second rise of Minangkabau’s publishers were supported by the needs of society to media of knowledge. These achievements were also driven by the government regulation in building many school and universities in which those institutions needed a buch of textbooks or school books. The books’s genres in the first rise and the second rise were quite similar where in those periods publishers produced the same topics such as: Islam, literature, general knowledge and sciences and books for schools and universities. The differentiator is only about children books. In the first rise is difficult to find the publishers which had a specific business line to produce children books, while in the second rise it can be found a Minangkabau’s publisher which produces children books and the other publishers have special division or imprint to publish that genre.

The switch of the center of economy and intellectual to Java became a important factor which made Minangkabau’s publishers to exist in far away from their homeland. In the same time, the publishers which still stand in West Sumatera was becoming smaller and just grow as local or regional publishers. The success of publishing companies are significantly related to the how many book they can sell. The condition that Java is the residence for more than half Indonesian population is more profitable to build publishing companies in Java rather than in West Sumatera.

To close this paper, I am aware that this research is still general and need deep elaboration specially about the exact number of publishers owned by Minangkabau’s people which are now existed in big cities in Java. I hope that in next writings I will do advanced research about the presence and pace of Minangkabau’s publishers.

  

 

REFERENCES

Books:

Ikatan Penerbit Indonesia (IKAPI). 2015. Industri Penerbitan Buku Indonesia dalam Data dan Fakta. IKAPI: Jakarta.

Naldi, Hendra. 2008. Booming Surat Kabar di Sumatra”s Wesrkust. Ombak: Yogyakarta

Sunarti, Sastri. 2013. Kajian Lintas Media Kelisanan dan Keberaksaraan dalam Surat Kabar Terbitan Awal di Minangkabau (1859-1940-an). Kepustakaan Populer Gramedia (KPG): Jakarta.

Suryadi. 2003. “Membaca Dunia Penerbitan dan penulisan Sumatera Barat”. In Nasrul Azwar (ed), Menyulam Visi, DKSB dalam Catatan. Dewan Kesenian Sumatera Barat: Padang

 

Thesis:

Amalia, Irma. 2011. “ANALISIS STRATEGI PROMOSI CITRA MAJALAH GADIS (STUDI KASUS) PT. FEMINA GROUP. Undergraduate thesis in Marketing Communication BINA NUSANTARA UNIVERSITY JAKARTA.

 

Journal.

Sudarmoko. Roman Pergaoelan, Penulisan Sejarah, dan Kanonisasi Sastra Indonesia, Jurnal Humaniora Fakultas Ilmu Budaya UGM, Vol. 21 No 1 February 2009 pp. 28-40. ISSN 0852-0801. Nasional Accredication.

 

Websites:

http://ekawenats.blogspot.co.id/2006/04/politik-ekonomi-industri-media-di.html

http://khazanah.republika.co.id/berita/dunia-islam/khazanah/15/12/26/nzyyj1301-kh-mawardi-labay-el-sulthani-sang-pendidik-dari-tanah-minang-part2
https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anwar_Sutan_Saidi

https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saudagar_Minangkabau

https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad_Arbie

 https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asril_Das

https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rozali_Usman

https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rozali_Usman

http://www.yudhistira-gi.com/tentang-kami

http://penerbitbestari.com/index.php?route=information/information&information_id=4

https://bumiaksara.com/history/

http://www.rajagrafindo.co.id/profil-perusahaan/

https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mawardi_Labay_El-Sulthani#cite_note-1

https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mirta_Kartohadiprodjo

https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sofyan_Alisjahbana

https://www.bps.go.id/linkTabelStatis/view/id/1274

 

Footnote

[1] Anggun Gunawan is an undergraduate alumnae of Faculty of Philosophy, Gadjah Mada University (UGM). Since 2010, he has been beginning to take part in Indonesian book industry by creating his own publishing business, Gre Publishing (http://grepublishing.com). His products have been collected by several prestigious library in Australia, United States, Germany, Netherlands and Malaysia. He was selected as one of Indonesian delegation for Frankfurt Book Fair 2014, the biggest book fair around the world. Now, He is pursuing Master degree in Publishing Media at Oxford Brookes University, England.

 

[2] Zikri Fadila is a final-year undergraduate student of History Education, Padang State University (UNP) with final thesis about “The History of Book Industry in West Sumatera 1900-1945”. In 2016, She succeeded to be the best presenter in History Paper Competition held by The UGM History Student Assosiation.

[3] Hendra Naldi, Booming Surat Kabar di Sumatra”s Wesrkust, (Yogyakarta: Ombak, 2008) . Page. 59

[4] ibid. page. 60.

[5] The ellaboration written by Yuliadre Darwis, Ph.D about the development of Minangkabau Press (1859-1945) is focusing in Islamic press.

[6]Suryadi, “Dunia Penerbitan dan Perbukuan di Sumatera Barat sebelum Zaman Kemerdekaan,”. In Nasrul Azwar (ed),  Menyulam Visi, DKSB dalam Catatan, (Padang: DKSB, 2003), page. 624.

[7] Sastri Sunarti. Kajian Lintas Media Kelisanan dan Keberaksaraan Dalam Surat Kabar Terbitan Awal di Minangkabau (1859-1940-an), ( Jakarta: Kepustakaan Populer Gramedia (KPG), 2013), page. 53-55.

[8]Suryadi, “Dunia Penerbitan dan Perbukuan di Sumatera Barat sebelum Zaman Kemerdekaan”. In Nasrul Azwar (ed),  Menyulam Visi, DKSB dalam Catatan, (Padang: DKSB, 2003), page. 600

[9] Sources:  Sastri Sunarti, Kajian Lintas Media Kelisanan dan Keberaksaraan Dalam Surat Kabar Terbitan Awal di Minangkabau (1859-1940-an), (Jakarta: Kepustakaan Populer Gramedia (KPG), 2013), page. 53-55. Suryadi, “Dunia Penerbitan dan Perbukuan di Sumatera Barat sebelum Zaman Kemerdekaan. in Nasrul Azwar (ed),  Menyulam Visi, DKSB dalam Catatan, (Padang: DKSB, 2003), hlm 599-624. Some bibliografies in books, journals and articles.

[10] Suryadi, Op.,  Cit., page 601

[11] ibid, page. 604

[12] ibid,. page. 610

[13] Sudarmoko, Roman Pergaoelan, Penulisan Sejarah, dan Kanonisasi Sastra Indonesia, Jurnal Humaniora Fakultas Ilmu Budaya UGM, Vol. 21 No 1 February 2009 pp. 28-40. ISSN 0852-0801. Nasional Accerditation.

[14] https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saudagar_Minangkabau

[15] Muhammad Arbie was born in Blang Kejeren, Gato Lues Aceh at 2 August 1920 from the married couple L. Sidimarah and Rafiah who were from Bayur, Agam, West Sumatera. He lived in Medan, North Sumatera. After Indonesian Independence, he succeeded to sell Al Qur’an. In 1949, he invested some money to buy letter press printing machine and then founded a small book store “Pustaka Maju”. His printing company focused on producing school books. In 1985, he opened a new printing company in Pulogadung Jakarta which concentrated to print government order for “Sekolah Dasar Inpres” program. (https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad_Arbie).

[16] Asril Das was born in Koto Baru, Solok West Sumatera at 10 Octover 1954 from the married couple Darusi Datuk Malintang Alam and Samsinar. He is an education bachelor from IKIP Bandung (1980). His pace in pubishing world was known with “Lubuk Agung” book store.

(https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asril_Das)

[17] H. Rozali Usman, SH was born in Sulit Air, Solok, West Sumatera in 1936 and passed away in Bandung at 2 November 2013. He was popular as the founder and owner of PT. Remaja Rosdakarya. He was also the Chairman of Indonesia Publishers Association (IKAPI) from 1983 to 1998 (https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rozali_Usman).

[18] Rainal Rais was born in Sulit Air, Solok West Sumatera at 27 October 1943 and passed away in Singapore at 1 August 2012. His carrer in publishing industry was known with his company “Rora Karya” which dominantly published general books and textbooks. He got bachelor degree from Faculty of Economics Padjadjaran University, Bandung (https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rainal_Rais).

[19] http://www.yudhistira-gi.com/tentang-kami

[20] http://penerbitbestari.com/index.php?route=information/information&information_id=4

[21] https://bumiaksara.com/history/

[22] http://www.rajagrafindo.co.id/profil-perusahaan/

[23] Mawardi Labay El-Suthani was born in Surau Ladang, Jorong Koto Marapak, Nagari Lambah, Ampek Angkek Canduang, Agam, West Sumatera at 5 March 1936. He passed away in Jakarta 14 September 2003. He was known as an ulama, preacher and business who published Islamic books. He studied in Kulliyyatul Mu’alimin, Padang Panjang. During New Order, he was usually invited to give islamic teaching in National Palace. He was also popular as the founder of Centre Al-Iman Bogor, Harapan Ibu Foundation, dan PT. Al Mawardi Prima

(https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mawardi_Labay_El-Sulthani#cite_note-1)

[24] http://khazanah.republika.co.id/berita/dunia-islam/khazanah/15/12/26/nzyyj1301-kh-mawardi-labay-el-sulthani-sang-pendidik-dari-tanah-minang-part2

[25] Mirta Kartohadiprodjo was born in Jakarta, 13 September 1944. She was known as a businesswoman, journalist, and the founder of Femina Group. She is the first daughter of Sutan Takdir Alisjahbana from his second wife, Raden Roro Sugiarti (https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mirta_Kartohadiprodjo)

[26] Sofyan Alisjahbana was the founder of Femina Gropu. He is the 3rd son of ketiga Sutan Takdir Alisjahbana from his first wife, Raden Ajeng Rohani Daha (https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sofyan_Alisjahbana)

[27] Irma Amalia. 2011. ANALISIS STRATEGI PROMOSI CITRA MAJALAH GADIS ( STUDI KASUS ) PT. FEMINA GROUP. Undergraduate Thesis in Marketing Communication BINA NUSANTARA UNIVERSITY JAKARTA.

[28] http://ekawenats.blogspot.co.id/2006/04/politik-ekonomi-industri-media-di.html

[29] https://www.bps.go.id/linkTabelStatis/view/id/1274

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